Black Seed 6 Call for papers

The sixth issue of Black Seed Journal will continue an effort to challenge and expand the meanings of both Green and Anarchy. As editors and contributors, we not only wish to reject notions of the state and capitalism, but seek perspectives that are earth-focused, unexpected or inhuman.
One of the concepts we would question is the anthropomorphism of the natural world as “Mother Earth,” and environmentalism as a paternalistic urge to protect the earth― to prevent humanity from “raping the earth.”
The vision of nature as gentle nurturer is predicated on the same conception of the earth that the Conquistadors held when they came to the New World, to rip into the Virgin Mary’s flesh and freely take from her. Seeing the earth as merely fertile and passive denies the true power of the Mother. Like a toddler who defiantly casts his blocks on the floor, we at once valorize and mourn the mess we have made, when actually we are small, fragile things amid the vastness of cosmic forces.
However, there are other visions of the Mother— visions that acknowledge that the ability to create life is inseparable from the ability to inflict pain and death. Kali, Medea, Ixchel, Tiamat, Spider Woman and countless other Mother Goddesses throughout the indigenous world show us visions far more nuanced, brutal and rich. The Mother is beauty, but also terror. She is love, as well as annihilation. She gives and takes, not as her brood requires, but as her mysteries dictate.
The binary of the Fearsome Sky God and Sweet Mother Earth is a historical fallacy. If we seek to speak of the earth, let it not be in language perverted and twisted by narrow-minded gender ideals, but in language that rejoices in the cruel glory of the natural world.
The theme for Issue 6 is the wrathful Mother, violent maternity, or the blood-drenched Queen. It will have a print run of  at least 5,000 but possibly 10,000 as well as be published online (eventually). We are open to all written forms. Please email with inquiries or submissions. You can snail mail us c/o Little Black Cart PO Box 3920 Berkeley CA 94703.
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Black Seed #5

Perhaps you thought we were gone? Two years feels like an eternity in these fast-too-fast times when epic conflicts have a full arc over a weekend, 140 characters creates volumes of commentary and opinion, a day seems like forever when you are refreshing a screen over and over. This project is the opposite of this spirit. Herein we hope to share themes that are fuller in scope, that merit reflection and contemplation. We intend to plant seeds and to care for them as they flower, mature, and decay. The half lives of our pleasures, concerns, and conflicts should be measured in decades and not in the blink of someones eyes or even the length of time the average radical stays active.

Welcome to issue five of Black Seed. If you have not seen or heard of us before let us introduce ourselves. We are a small collective of green anarchists who publish a paper-only (or at least paper first) publication intended to broaden and intensify our perspectives. We differ from green anarchist positions that precde us because we have a deep concern about positive political programs (however they are dressed up), the ability of our people to achieve them, and the efficacy of a revolutionary mindset in the first place. Pointedly, we feel as though the academic arts (anthropology first among them) are too mired in the gauntlet of what it takes to become a practitioner to take seriously. This is not to say that we aren’t willing to learn about people, the past, or whatever but that the citation of sources, and the othering of people or their superior lifeways is not how we believe a green anarchist perspective begins. But it does begin, mostly by conversations with each other, with people who may also be anarchists but don’t use the term. Our experience is that those who are most likely to share our attitude towards an earth first, anti-authoritarian, and anti-ideological perspective are people who are also indigenous. Indigeneity is a confusing smear of bodies, practices, and conversations that we know will continue to inform Black Seed.

This issue dwells on these building blocks. New editor Ramon and I write new manifestos contemplating what it means to be a green anarchist in a post-manifesto age. What does it mean to have a politics of pacing and contemplation rather than one of being in such a hurry all the time. What does it mean that the world is coming to an end, forever. Finally but perhaps most importantly what is the role of violence in our movement (cough) today and in the ushering of a new one? Anarchists have always been the party of imagination but also of morality. Violence cuts through both of these gordian knots but to what end? These are the questions that are attempted to be answered in issue five of the Black Seed.

How to Get a Copy

You can get a copy of our paper at Little Black Cart.

You can also get 50 or 100 copies for the price of postage.

Table of Contents

Abe Cabrera – the catalog of horrors p 19
Aragorn! – black seed—an old green anarchy p 2
Bellamy Fitzpatrick – revolutionary dissonance p 20
Dominique Ganawaabi & Søren Aubade – the erotic life of stones p 16
Dot Matrix – science is capital p 6
Goat – my mind below this beautiful country p 14
Jack Diddly – smiles on the tiles p 10
John Clark – resilencing, social justice, part 2 p 28
John Jacobi – ec0-extremism or extinctionism p 22
Linn O’Mable – uncivilized artists, violent aesthetes p 27
Mallory Wuornos – murder of the civilized p 8
Ramon Elani – what does green anarchy mean today p 4
Ramon Elani – the way of the violent stars p 18
Rhyd Wildermuth – the world without forms p 24
Sever – against self-sufficiency, the gift p 32
S-kw’etu’? – the bones of mayuk p 12

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Announcing Black Seed Issue #4

In This Issue:

  • The End of the World?
  • Activism and the Green Left
  • An Introduction to the Anthropecene
  • Interviews with Dominique & Knowing the Land is Resistance
  • The Aftermath of the Katrina Disaster
  • Anarcho-Primitivism and Green Platonism
  • Nihilist Animism
  • Reviews & More…

Editorial: Is the End of the World Upon us?

There are plenty of signs that would lead  us  to  believe  that  this  is  the case. In this issue we focus on natural  catastrophies,  both  the  incredibly
dangerous ways they’re minimized by government  agencies  and  popular  media,  as well as our total lack of collective responsibility,  demonstrated  by  our  increasing consumption  of  finite  resources.  Our world  has  gone  mad  with  profit-for-the-very-few and the political and social consequences of a world with as great a gap in income levels as there has ever been are dangerous.  How  will  the  next  economic crash look compared to the 1930s? Will it take another war to end the next one? Can we survive such a war? Finally, is the end of the world visible in how we allow ourselves to be treated by the State? If Black Lives Matter has taught us anything it is that the human capacity to objectify and destroy  other  humans  is  as  high  today as it has ever been and that the rhetoric is even more sophisticated (and not) and even less forgiving. If the end of the world is  a  measurable  event  there  is  plenty  of evidence that the meter for it is at a near high.
But if we were to predict what is going to  happen  we  would  not  predict  a  technicolor,  end-of-the-action-movie,  discrete end of the world in our lifetime. What we would  predict  is  instead  something  of  a whimper.  We  would  argue  that  the  end of human progress looks like a thousand Space  X  capsules  failing  to  make  orbit, islands  in  South  Asia  disappearing,  and the infamous air pollution in Bejing. The headlines  will  continue  to  scream  about the end of the idea that humans are capable of thinking and acting in big and successful ways about our own possibilities. We will slowly starve.
The  end  of  the  world—just  like  ideas of human perfectibility or our progressive future of reasonable solutions to logistical problems—should  be  seen  for  what  it is:  a  construction  of  the  amazing  myth machine of the particular society that we live in. Our four horsemen will not come with scythe, sword, arrow, and scale. They will just come with less: less resources, less political stability, and less capacity to see a way out. This is because ultimately what we call the end of the world will merely be the end of this particular humanist society, the end of a Western Civilization that spans the globe, the end of Global Capitalism™ as we know it. It may be the end of neo-Rome but it isn’t the end of us.
The  problem  we  face  is:  who  are  we without  the  world  as  we  understand  it? Are  we  preppers  whose  future  vision  is limited to fences and feeding our (homogenous) children? Are we parochial victims of  future  strongmen  as  prefigured  in  so many movies and books? Or are we something else?
If rewilding has been worth anything in  green  anarchist  thought  and  practice it’s been engaging as an intervention into this question. But along with gaining skills we also need to seriously reassess how we associate  with  one  another.  Perhaps  it is  too  late  for  city  dwellers,  who  appear to be no longer capable of caring for one another  even  in  today’s  world.  We  have plenty  of  examples  of  what  co-existence can look like, what forms cooperation and mutual aid have taken, but we experience its  impossibility  in  our  daily  lives.  Perhaps the lesson we should draw from the upcoming Great Whimper is that we have serious  work  to  do  regarding  the  depth and  sincerity  of  our  interpersonal  relationships.  Other  people  may  not  save  us but they do sometimes make surviving on less  seem  like  thriving  on  more,  a  lesson that  becomes  more  and  more  obviously necessary, as we have experienced excess and it has turned out to be less desirable than we could have imagined.

You can order bulk copies of Black Seed online from LBC. Please write to us at the addresses listed below for any further inquiries regarding subscriptions.

We are always accepting written submissions for publishing. Our next deadline for Black Seed Issue #4 is July 1st. You can email us at blackseed (at) anarchyplanet (dot) org or send mail to:

Black Seed
PO Box 68271
Grand Rapids, MI 49516

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Announcing Black Seed Issue #3

blackseed3In the midst of a cacophony of headlines and empty chatter, we present Black Seed Issue #3. We are a printed green anarchist publication, aiming to step outside of internet-based dialogue and facilitate more thoughtful conversations. We want to add our voices to the choir that has been singing against the mega-machine since time immemorial. Some highlights of this issue include:

  •  A new piece by Sever (who wrote Land and Freedom for Issue #1), continuing the discussion on spirituality in a personal and nuanced way
  • A critical response to Issue #2’s “The Undying Appeal of White Nationalism”
  • An interview with Corrina Gould, a Chochenyo and Karkin Ohlone woman from Oakland, talking about the history of indigenous people in the Bay Area and several recent actions she has been a part of.
  • Two reflections from folks involved in the ZAD in France
  • A Review of M. Kat Anderson’s Tending the Wild

You can order bulk copies of Black Seed online from LBC. Please write to us at the addresses listed below for any further inquiries regarding subscriptions.

We are always accepting written submissions for publishing. Our next deadline for Black Seed Issue #4 is July 1st. You can email us at blackseed (at) anarchyplanet (dot) org or send mail to:

Black Seed
PO Box 68271
Grand Rapids, MI 49516

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Callout for Submissions for Black Seed Issue #3

Black Seed is a bi-annual green anarchist, submission-based publication. We are a conversational project meaning that our goal is to help facilitate face-to-face conversations based on submissions we have received and curated into a printed publication. Taking steps away from Internet culture feels integral to this project, though sadly, as you are likely reading this on a screen, we know too well it is a process for many of us to learn and re-learn. Exciting as printed words may be, we admit these ideas and experiences are largely born out of coping with the symptoms of civilization. So we ask you to share how you cope and critique, how you have tried to run away, how you have battled the demons of domestication, and how your heart pines for something new.

Over the past year, we have explored continuing themes of spirituality, roles (if any) of anthropology in green anarchist thought, anarchist indigeneity, eco-defense in the US, to name a few. The main articles from Black Seed Issue #1 can be found here:….

We’ve heard various murmurs of the paper, and wish to see more engagement with the ideas and stories. Consider this an invitation to the discussion. We are both looking for a continuance of conversations underway and excited to welcome new topics.

Deadline for Issue #3 is February 1st.
Send all articles, stories, etc. to blackseed (at) anarchyplanet (dot) org -OR-

Black Seed, PO Box 68271, Grand Rapids, MI, 49516.

If you have not seen the previous issue, you can order it at

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Content From Black Seed Issue #1 Now Available Online

The main articles from Black Seed Issue #1 are now available to read online at

The story Voice From The Grave, along with the other articles from Black Seed Issue #2, will be available to read online upon the release of Black Seed Issue #3.

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Announcing: Black Seed Issue #2

Black Seed Issue #2 has arrived from the printers and is available for bulk mail-order through Little Black Cart and soon to be available throughout the U.S. at various bookstores and social-spaces. We are excited to present you with another publication of green anarchy, a continuance of some of the conversations started in the first issue and stirring up new conversations that we stated were part of our interests in our initial announcements.

Here’s some of what you’ll find in Issue #2:

-A transcription of a discussion on Green Anarchy that happened at the Seattle Anarchist Bookfair this year
-The second part of the interview with Klee Benally
-A previously unpublished poem by Diane di Prima
-Answers To Questions Not Asked: Anarchists & Anthropology by Aragorn!
-The Undying Appeal Of White Nationalism by James Joshua
-Implications Of An Anarchist Spirit In The Salmon Run by Cedar Leighlais
-Points For Further Discussion In The Digital Era by Oxalis
-Anarchy In Flight by Ron Sakolsky
-The second part of A Voice From The Grave by S-kw’etu’? Siceltmot
-Ways Of Casting Wishes by Vira Hawthorn
-Two Steps Nowhere by Tommy Brock & Dire Wolfe
-Oxalis reviews the book Green Syndicalism by Jeff Shantz
-Pulling On The Threads Of Representation by Hedwig

We also have two events coming up this weekend in the Pacific Northwest to celebrate and discuss this issue. Some of the editors will be present to discuss Issue #2, our haters, our hated, and so much more.

Friday, October 17th @ 8PM
New Moon Cafe
113 4th Ave W
Olympia, WA

Saturday, October 18th @ 8PM
Black Coffee Cafe
501 E Pine St
Seattle, WA

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Submission Deadline for Black Seed #2 Given A Grace Period

The originally intended deadline for submissions for Issue #2 of Black Seed is a couple o f days away, and while we’ve got quite an amount of material to work with, we also know of a handful of potential contributors who’ve yet to get some writing to us.

Next week we’re going to start piecing together artwork and submissions for our second release, but we wanted to give a little bit of a grace period to those who might still be working on their submissions. This summer seemed to have been an incredible incubator for Black Seed. Something indeed has sprung, and with autumn fast-approaching we will see how these things may harden up for the winter.

That being said, the official deadline for submissions has been pushed back to September 15th. The sooner we receive your submission however, the better chance there is that we’ll be able to fit it into this issue.

Looking forward to hearing from you,

Black Seed Editors

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Call-Out For Submissions for Issue #2, Fall 2014

Welcome to the world, little one.

The first issue of Black Seed has been finding its way around anarchist circles since its birth this spring. The copies, intentionally passed between hands and not read through screens, has inspired disagreements, praise, scoffs, and most importantly: dialogue.

Our expectations as editors were varied, but the response to our first issue convinced those most skeptical that the anti-civilization conversation is far from over; indeed it’s not even the same conversation that was occurring when Green Anarchy ceased publication in 2009. There is yet so much to be said. We’d love to hear new and different voices from the choir sing. So if something in the last issue stirred you, or even if you were disappointed that nothing did stir you, don’t wait for someone else to write the articles you want to see. Indeed, be the change you wish to see!

One topic that has been sparked with some controversy in Black Seed has been the idea of hope; abandonment or pursuance? As always, we’re not looking for one answer to that question, nor to gather all on the same side, but rather dive into disagreements, conversation, and incitement. May Black Seed be that sea!

The deadline for Issue II submissions is September 1st.

You can email us at:

blackseed (at) anarchyplanet (dot) org

Or send mail to:

Black Seed

PO Box 68271

Grand Rapids, MI 49516

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VICE Interviews John Zerzan


“Whenever I think of [inventor of the computer] Alan Turing I think about the Apple logo,” began John Zerzan. “The logo is an apple with a bite out of it. Of course, Turing supposedly smeared cyanide on an apple and bit into it after being persecuted by the government for being gay. A bite from an apple is also associated with our expulsion from the Garden of Eden. I don’t think that’s quite the message they’re trying to convey, but there it is.”

I had arranged an interview with arguably the world’s most prominent anti-technology philosopher via email. The interview was to be conducted via Skype. At the appointed time, Zerzan’s voice leapt across the continent—from Eugene, Oregon, to New York City in the fraction of a second. He was smiling when his face flashed onto the monitor. I smiled back and looked into his eyes—before catching myself. The irony of Skype, of course, is that in order to actually make eye contact with someone, you have to ignore their eyes and look into the camera instead.

VICE: You advocate for all of civilization to abandon technology and return to a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. How do you feel about the Skype call that we’re having right now?
John Zerzan:
I was on the Art Bell show years ago and he kept saying that to be consistent with my philosophy, I should live in a cave. I said, “Yeah, you’re right, but then this conversation wouldn’t be possible.” You have to try to connect with people. You have to be part of the conversation in society or else you’re not serious.

So, is that the only reason that you don’t go live in the wilderness?
Well, I guess so, although I would have to say that, like most people, I’m pretty damned domesticated. I enjoy when I’m out there, but I’m not as equipped as some people.

Have you had periods where you have lived off the grid?
Not really, though I’ve gone to the mountains for a few days at a time.

And when you went there, did you get a sense of what your life in the city is missing?
Sure, you unplug and connect with nature. It’s one thing to write about it, but you need to be out there in it too. Were not going to have a transition [to a hunter-gatherer existence] until we learn how to do without technology and civilization. There are practical things that need to be tackled.

How do you think you would fare during the transition with your skill set?
You know, I’m 70. I lift weights, but as far as actually having primitive skills I’m pretty deficient. If [civilization] crashed overnight we’d all be in trouble. We’re so dependent on technology for everything—even the simplest things.

Though that dependence and interconnectivity would seem to make a collapse more likely, right? There would be a domino effect.
I think so. They say that if one satellite fails then they’ll all start falling. But, that doesn’t mean that people wouldn’t go ahead and try and put everything right back up again.

How can you convince people to give up technology?
It won’t happen unless people get tired of more and more mediation. If you’re going to be content to be a zombie staring at your little screen, of course nothing will happen. I’m hopeful that people are going to find that pretty dull.

So, when did you have your epiphany about all of this?
I didn’t have one epiphany. I began to see that there is an intentionality to technology. It isn’t just some neutral thing. The Industrial Revolution wasn’t just about economics. As Foucault says, it was more about imposing discipline. It started to dawn on me, maybe technology has always been that way. People are not yet thinking too much about it, but Hollywood is thinking about it. Look at Her. Look at Transcendence. These are amazing movies that just put it right on the table. You want more technology? You want to be absolutely dehumanized and humiliated? This is what it looks like.

Is there any way that technological advancement might turn out OK?
No. I don’t think so. The trans-humanists say that if we just have more technology, we’ll have a quantum leap and everything will be OK. We will solve all the problems. We will live forever. Well how is that working out so far? We’re seeing the collapse of the global environment. We have these mass shootings. “We’re all connected,” they say, but we’ve never been more disconnected from each other in history.

So, you want to be connected and the trans-humanists want to be connected too. Is it possible that you’re both striving for the same idea of utopia?
Maybe, but what these guys are really saying is that the brain is a computer. Well, the brain is not a computer. It’s nothing like a computer. That’s just basically stupid. It’s not a machine. We’re not machines. They have no idea what consciousness is. Nobody does.

I think they make that claim because they see the brain as being an entirely physical entity, just like a computer. Do you believe that there is a non-physical or a spiritual component that’s impossible to replicate?
So far, all they’ve managed to do is make a machine that can beat a human at chess. That’s just faster calculation. How is that intelligence? And, furthermore, how is that consciousness? I remember being in Turkey giving a talk and this young woman said, “You know, I think this green anarchy movement is at base a spiritual movement.” Wow. Maybe we’ve been groping towards that all along.

So, there’s definitely idealization on the part of many trans-humanists, though [Unabomber] Theodore Kaczynski writes in his essay “The Truth About Primitive Life” that there is a lot of idealization of the hunter-gatherer lifestyle too. Do you have a response to that?
Well, one thing Ted got right is that it does no good to create an idealized and romantic version of prehistory. But I’ll tell you one other thing, and it’s the reason why we’re not on terms anymore: He was fiddling with the sources, and that is not forgivable in my opinion. He deliberately took things out of context in a way that is dishonest to put it mildly.

Can you give an example?
He wrote that gays were routinely suppressed by all these different primitive societies. He quoted the source he was using to say that gay sex was forbidden, but if you look at the whole quote, actually all sex was forbidden during a certain ritual that lasted a few days. In other words, that was a lie.

What was his motivation, do you think, for the misrepresentation?
Well he’s got a very narrow focus. If it’s not anti-technology, it’s fucked up. But, I think the question is deeper. It’s about civilization. It’s about domestication. We lived for 2,000,000 years without civilization and people got along very well.

And, according to your essays, you believe that one of the reasons they got along so well is because they didn’t have language, right? Are you advocating an abandonment of language as well?
I have to say this is the most speculative thing that I’ve written about. I’m not abandoning the argument, and I try to make a case for questioning symbolic activity even including language, but it’s much more clear in terms of time, and numbers, and art. What makes it so speculative is that no one knows when speech started. There’s no way to prove it.

You’ve written that language fractures a holistic world into isolated fragments. Do you have a sense for what life without speech would be like?
I think it would be just a more direct form of communication. I found it stunning that Freud, the arch-rationalist, said that he thought that humans were telepathic originally. He didn’t think that was such a marvelous thing. I would say that sounds pretty great. You don’t even have to have symbolic mediation, you can just communicate without symbols.

The idea of universal telepathy almost sounds like the trans-humanist concept of the singularity. Everything would be directly transferred between participants without symbolism.
Yeah, I guess you could call it that – the original singularity.

Do you think we can ever give up speech?
Who knows. So many poets have said that the deepest most intense stuff is never put into words.

You talked about time becoming symbolic. Have you ever experienced time in a non-symbolic way?
In my own life I’ve always had this acute sense of time. I don’t know why. I remember working in the fields picking strawberries as a kid. We would start working at 6 AM and there was a steam whistle that blew at noon. Well, I could always tell within seconds when that whistle was going to blow. It was uncanny and I took great pride in it. Another way to look at it is that I was so colonized by time, so ruled by it. Time has become a material thing. I think you could even say that our sense of time-consciousness is pretty much the best way to measure alienation.

What do you think about the violent anti-technology groups that have arisen to take the place of Ted Kaczynski? There’s the Mexican group Individuals Tending Towards the Savage, for example…
There is another one in Mexico called Obsidian Point. It’s interesting that the obsidian point is sharper than surgical steel. It makes you think about the solutions that people had outside of the technological system.

And ITS?
The ITS group is real slavish to Ted Kaczynski. I think it’s a little unfortunate. They even put out a slur or two on me. Why are they taking a little shot at Zerzan? It’s because I caught Ted cheating and they know that. Violent groups like ITS have already killed two people. So, yeah, they’re for real.

Do you think their methods will prove successful?
I doubt it. One of the things that turns me off a lot is that the ITS group sends bombs just like Ted. When they injured some postal employee, they said, “Oh well, that’s just the way it goes. This is war and there will be casualties—collateral damage.”

How do you feel about anarcho-primitivist groups like ITS using technology to accomplish their aims? It reminds me of that old communist idea—that the state is necessary at first and then it’s supposed to become unnecessary and wither away. Of course, it never does wither away. It only gets stronger.
That’s an interesting way to put it. Well, I just feel like we’re trapped in these contradictions period. If you want to call it hypocrisy, OK. I think about this a lot and I know there are people who feel that I have gone over to the dark side.

So, if civilization does collapse, what do you think the re-wilding process will look like?
That’s the number one question. How are we going to live? Were so de-skilled, how do we re-skill? Even something as far back as making stone tools, knowing what plants are edible. I mean, how anxious will you be to pull down civilization if you don’t know how to live without it? So, we have to start getting those skills.

And, maybe it’s not just learning long-forgotten skills, but also learning to forget. Will we forget what stars are, for example? In the past, people would look up and they wouldn’t know what they were, and it wasn’t so much an absence of knowledge, but a presence of mystery.
Right, why do people need to know those things? What’s the instrumentality? I would contend that it’s not ignorance. It’s actually the opposite of ignorance. The hunter-gatherer people could see a bent blade of grass and tell you eight things about what it meant. Is that not science?

The lack of information also allows the individual to project themselves into that absence. There’s a creativity to giving one’s own personal meaning to things rather than having the meaning imposed from without.
That really hits the nail on the head. Here’s a real quick little story. Some of us were gathering up in Olympia at an anarchist workshop and we overheard these people say, “Man these primitivists are crazier than we thought. One of them was saying that the earth is flat.” What [the primitivist had] really said, was that if you live in band society of 60 people, it doesn’t matter if the earth is round or flat. We look at this marvelous photograph of the earth taken from the moon. Here we are on this fragile little globe, but what did it take to get that picture? What kind of massive industrialization project did it take in order to have that one lovely picture?

The price was just too high?
Right. I have this friend in Detroit who always used to say, “You want to keep all of this nice technology? Great. So, do you want to go down in the mines and get the metal for it? Is there anybody who wants to be in a smelter?” I wouldn’t do it if somebody put a gun to my head. So, who’s going to do it? Are the trans-humanists going to do it? You have this wage slavery of millions of people who are risking their lives to make it possible for them to have their crazy trans-humanist fantasies.

How do you determine what technology is acceptable and what isn’t?
I think one very general way to look at it is division of labor. If you have a tool that anybody can make, that’s great. You’re in contact with it in a very sensual way. But, tools that require a hierarchy of coordination and specialization create a kind of distancing. That’s the kind of technology to avoid.

One thing I wonder about—and Stephen Hawking has brought this up—is that life on Earth will eventually be destroyed by either a meteorite or finally the sun burning out. He has suggested that our only hope of survival is to colonize outer space…
The sun will burn out in billions of years, but I don’t really think about billions of years very much myself. That’s just so infinitely remote. Things are so pressing right now, let’s work on that. Should we just jump on a rocket and leave the world behind as a smoking, toxic ruin? “We destroyed this planet, now on to the next.” What kind of answer is that?

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